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Woodworking projects offer many different possibilities for learning:

Math: measurements
Science: tree rings (evident in the grain of the wood) and other tree structures
Reading: reading directions on projects
Social studies: every culture that has wood in its geographical area has used it
Fine motor skills: painting
Large motor skills: sawing, hammering, etc.
Problem solving: kinda speaks for itself
Hands-on learning/kinesthetic learning/learning by doing
Lo-tech learning experience: technology-based learning is wonderful but sometimes we need to do something real.
Success: making something gives students a feeling of success.
Independence: students can learn skills well enough that they can create things on their own
Creativity: making something out of wood is creative
Authenticity: adults make things out of wood, not the ubiquitous construction paper that is found in classrooms
Responsibility: teaching students how to handle tools properly helps them to take on responsibility. You can use tools such as hand saws that are harder to get hurt with. You can also find hand drills instead of electric drills. You can have children hold nails with pliers so they don't hammer their fingers.

Getting supplies:
You are going to need tools (typically a one-time purchase) and hardware and wood (things to be bought on an ongoing basis)

Tools:
hammers
pliers
saws (straight cutting handsaw and coping)
clamps
screw drivers
hand drills and bits
SAFETY GLASSES

Hardware:
knobs
hooks
screws of various types and sizes
nails (smooth shank and ring shank)
hinges
odds and ends

Wood:
Pine is a good choice because it is a relatively soft wood. If you are getting wood from a saw mill that doesn't carry pine, choose poplar. You don't need large pieces of wood, so if you can find a construction company or saw mill that will give you scraps, that would be ideal. Plywood and underlayment (luan) is also good.

Finishing materials:
paint
brushes
stain
polyurethane